Capital Market India:
Capital Market in India is the market where securities such as bonds, stocks, derivatives, and other capital instruments, can be bought and sold. It is a composite of the primary and secondary markets and links savings and investments between issuers of securities and investors. The primary market is a market for the new security issues and initial public offering (IPO) and the secondary market is a market for existing securities previously issued in the primary market. The leading exchanges in India are the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE), National Stock Exchange (NSE), Multi Commodity Exchange (MCX), and National Commodity & Derivatives Exchange (NCDEX).
Capital Market Features:
The capital market in India refers to the market for buying and selling long-term financial instruments, such as stocks, bonds, and derivatives. It provides a platform for businesses, governments, and individuals to raise capital for various purposes, including investment, expansion, and infrastructure development.
Here are Some Key Components and Features of the Capital Market in India:
1. Stock Market:
The primary component of the Capital Market is the stock market, where shares of publicly listed companies are traded. In India, the two major stock exchanges are the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) and the National Stock Exchange (NSE).
2. Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI):
SEBI is the regulatory authority for the Capital Market in India. It oversees and regulates various participants, such as stock exchanges, brokers, depositories, and listed companies, to ensure fair practices, transparency, and investor protection.
3. Primary Market:
The primary market is where companies raise capital by issuing new securities to the public through initial public offerings (IPOs) or rights issues. Investors can subscribe to these offerings and become shareholders of the company.
4. Stock Indices:
Stock market indices, such as the BSE Sensex and NSE Nifty, track the performance of select stocks listed on the exchanges. These indices provide a benchmark for overall market performance.
5. Bond Market:
The Capital Market in India also includes a bond market, where government securities, corporate bonds, and debentures are traded. The bond market provides a means for companies and the government to raise debt capital.
6. Derivatives Market:
The derivatives market in India offers instruments like futures and options, which derive their value from underlying assets such as stocks or indices. It provides opportunities for hedging, speculation, and risk management.
7. Market Intermediaries:
Various intermediaries play a role in the functioning of the Capital Market, including stockbrokers, depositories, custodians, investment bankers, mutual funds, and financial institutions. These intermediaries facilitate trading, provide advisory services, and ensure settlement and clearing processes.
8. Investor Protection:
SEBI has implemented several measures to safeguard investor interests, such as stringent disclosure norms, transparency requirements, and investor education initiatives. It has also established investor grievance redressal mechanisms to address complaints and disputes.
9. Regulatory Reforms:
Over the years, India has introduced reforms to enhance the efficiency and integrity of its Capital Market. Initiatives like the introduction of electronic trading, the dematerialization of securities, and the implementation of the Goods and Services Tax (GST) have contributed to the development of the market.
Type Of Capital Market
Capital markets are financial markets where individuals, institutions, and governments can buy and sell various types of financial securities. These markets facilitate the allocation of capital and enable businesses and governments to raise funds for investment and growth.
There are Types of Capital Markets, Including:
1. Primary Market:-
The primary market is a part of the Capital Market where new securities are issued and sold for the first time. It is the market in which companies, governments, and other entities raise capital by offering their securities to investors. The primary market involves the issuance of various financial instruments, including stocks, bonds, and other types of securities. This is a market for newly issued securities. Companies and governments will sell new securities here to help finance their operations and/or pay for new projects.
Investors may purchase these securities directly from the issuer or through an investment bank. Governments, municipalities, corporations, and other entities may issue bonds and other debt securities in the primary market to raise funds. These entities set the terms of the bond, including the interest rate, maturity date, and repayment schedule. The primary market is essential for companies and governments to raise funds for expansion, investment in projects, or debt refinancing.
2. Secondary Market:
This is a market for previously issued securities. Investors may buy and sell these securities from other investors. The most common example of a secondary market is a stock exchange. Examples include the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and Nasdaq. The secondary market operates through various trading platforms, such as stock exchanges, electronic communication networks (ECNs), and over-the-counter (OTC) markets.
These platforms provide a marketplace where buyers and sellers can come together to execute trades. In the secondary market, investors can buy and sell securities that are already in circulation. This includes stocks, bonds, mutual funds, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), and other types of securities. Investors typically execute trades in the secondary market through brokers, who act as intermediaries between buyers and sellers.
3. Derivatives Market:
This is a market for derivatives. Examples of derivatives include futures, options, and credit derivatives. Derivatives can be used to speculate on the future price of an asset or to hedge against losses. Derivatives are based on underlying assets, such as stocks, bonds, commodities, currencies, and interest rates. Investors use derivatives to manage risk or take advantage of price movements in the underlying asset.